English sentence structures英語語的句子結構/ Basic sentence patterns基本句子的花式

English sentence structures英語語的句子結構/
Basic sentence patterns基本句子的花式

大家的作文往往給改到通篇桃花片片,只因所寫的句子並不符合英文的語法。其實,所有的英文句子,可歸納為5種基本結構。就像數學的半徑 × 半徑 × 派(π = 圓周率),是有公式可循的。

1. N + V. noun + verb.
Alice sings.
The child walks.

2. N + V + N. noun + verb + noun.
The thief steals a necklace.

3. N + LV + Adj. noun + Linking verb + Adjective.
Alice is pretty.

4. N + LV + N. noun + linking verb + noun.
My grandfather is a millionaire.
5. N + V + IO + DO.
noun + verb + noun (indirect object) + noun (direct object).

***** ***** ***** ***** ***** *****

英文句子的第一個字(九成以上是名詞,例如My brother;Peter; Our house;David and I等等),叫subject(主語/主詞),第二個字必是動詞(verb) ;最短的英語句子可僅由兩個字組成。

1. Subject + intransitive verb (不及物動詞)
公式: [ S + iV ]
Example: Peter runs.
The baby cries.
以上兩句,完全正確,但太單調了。所以要添加adjective和adverb來豐富句子的內容。(另外有兩課介紹adjectives and adverbs)
Peter runs quickly. 〔quickly是副詞,用來修飾 (modify/modifies) 動詞runs。〕
修飾的意思是改變它的原意,可以是加重,也可以是減弱。

Peter runs slowly. 〔全句的意思便不同了。〕

Peter runs very quickly. 〔very是副詞,A副詞可以用來修飾B副詞;AB混合後,再用來修飾句子中的動詞。〕
在此句中,very quickly便一同用來修飾runs。

The baby cries bitterly. 那嬰兒淒涼地哭起來。
(可有發覺中文字詞的次序,與英文很不同。)

一般來說,中文的形容詞 ‥‥的;副詞‥‥地。
2. Subject + Transitive verb + direct object(直接受詞).
[S + Vt + DO]
My mother prepares breakfast. 我母親準備早餐。

My mother prepares breakfast for me every morning.
我母親每朝早都為我準備早餐。

My mother always prepares breakfast for me.
我母親經常都會為我準備早餐的。

My mother never prepares breakfast for me.
我母親從不為我準備早餐的。

always, never都是副詞(adverb),every morning 是表示時間的phrase,其功能(function) 也是當作副詞來用;every morning告訴您,在何時進行prepares這個動作,
由於every morning由兩個字組成,其功能是作為adverb來用,便叫adverbial phrase(副詞片語)。但凡用來修飾(modify/modifies) 一個動詞(verb)的片語(phrase),都叫adverbial phrase。

for 是介繫詞(preposition),文法規定,但凡preposition之後,必須補上一個名詞,或相等於名詞的東西。
我,原本可以用I 或者me,但文法規定,preposition之後只能用「受格」(objective form),而I 是「主格」(subjective form) ,me才是「受格」。
for me,由兩個字組成,所以叫phrase;第一個字for 是preposition,所以,整個for me的片語/詞組,便叫prepositional phrase(介繫詞片語)
in the morning;in the afternoon和in the evening 都是常用的、用來表示時間的「介繫詞片語」(prepositional phrase);
可以說,背誦一堆有用的的「介繫詞片語」便等於背誦了很多生字,大大豐富了您遣詞造句的材料。

〔註:其實run;cry和 prepare全部皆可以用作iV和Vt,視乎需要而定。但學習時,一方面要記該個動詞(verb)的解釋,又要記它到底是iV還是Vt,或兩者都通用。這也是為何很多人都中途放棄,或學得不夠全面。
記住,世上是沒有不勞而獲的。查字典時順便看看它是iV還是Vt,抑或兩者都通用。日子有功,自自然然便會潛移默化了。〕

3. Subject+ Vt + IO +DO
My mother gave me a dictionary.
IO + DO

4. Subject + Vt + DO+ Object complement
[S + Vt + DO + OC]
The girls loved the programme “Beauty Tips”.
Complement是「補語」,指句子中緊貼著「動詞」的字詞。其作用是提供多些有關subject 或object的額外資料(使句子更豐富)。

5. Subject + Linking verb + Predicate Noun / Nominative
My cousin is an engineer.

6. Subject + Linking verb + Predicate adjective
Mary is pretty.
My sister is clever.

動詞再細分為:
(1) 及物動詞,transitive verb [ Vt ] ,這個動詞後面必須再加上一個名詞(或相等於名詞的東西)。 S + Vt + noun (= direct object).

(2) 不及物動詞,intransitive verb [ Vi ] ;這個動詞後面毋須再加上任何東西,可直接加上句號(full stop)把句子完結。換言之,英語中最簡短的句子便是由
Subject + Vi 組成。(沒有direct object)

(3) 有很多動詞卻是兩用,可以作為Vt 或者Vi來用都可以,例如drive〔開(車),駕駛〕
Helena drives a new sports car. 〔一輛新跑車便是 direct object〕
Helena drives a car. 這句太簡單,所以加上new 和sports兩個形容詞,用來修飾(modify / modifies)car字。

The bus driver did not stop but drove on / past / away.
該名巴士司機(到站後)並沒有停車,反而(繼續)開車往前走/
把車開過了(巴士站)/離開了。
on / past / away都不是名詞,只是副詞(adverb)而已。用來修飾drove (drive)這個動詞。
bus原為名詞,但在這裏借來作為形容詞用,用來修飾driver(名詞)。
例如orange juice橙汁,orange原為名詞,但在這裏借來作為形容詞用。
當然,apple juice/ apple pie(蘋果汁/蘋果批)的道理也相同。

在普通的日校課程,英語導師根本無時間像這樣逐項分析,逐樣詳解。這也是作者設計本書的目的。初期,您會覺得學得很慢,但當您掌握了基本的、正確的語文法則(rules)後(學校沒有教的),自然能悟出學習的竅門。
TYPES OF VERB
DEFINITIN: Verb is the word which is used to tell about the action or movement of person, thing and animal. There are many kinds of verb as follow:
1) Transitive Verb
2) Intransitive Verb
3) Linking Verb
4) Auxiliary Verb
5) Modal Verb
1) TRANSITIVE VERB
Transitive Verb is the verb that needs object and usually followed by noun.
These transitive verbs include arrest, avoid, do, enjoy, find, force, get, give, grab, hit, like, pull , report, shock, take, tell, touch, want, warn…
Formula:
Sub + T.V + Obj
Example:
– She takes a book.
– I need a chair.
– They speak English.
2) INTRANSITIVE VERB
Intransitive Verb is the verb which does not need object, but it needs adverbial modifier. These intransitive verbs include appear, come, fall, go, happen, matter, sleep, swim, wait…
Formula:
Sub + I.V + (Adv)
Example:
– He cries.
– They dance well.
– She sings beautifully.
3) LINKING VERB
Linking Verb refers to verb that needs subjective complement rather than object and that subjective complement describes the subject.
These Linking Verbs include:
be, smell, feel, taste, prove, look, become, appear, stay, remain, get, sound, seem, grow, turn, go…
a) Subjective Complement can be “Adjective”
Example:
– Your face grows red.
– He looks tired.
– Her voice sounds pretty.
b) Subjective Complement can be “Noun or Pronoun”
Example:
– He becomes a district governor.
– The robber is you.

5 BASIC SENTENCE STRUCTURES

• The girl / swims.
Subject 主語 + Verb.

• The man / builds a house.
Subject + Verb + Noun (Direct object直接受詞).

DIRECT OBJECT
The direct object receives the action of the sentence. The direct object is usually a noun or pronoun.

When there is a linking verb 連繫動詞/沒有表示動作within the sentence (often a linking verb is a form of the verb to be).

• The man is a good father. (father = noun which renames the subject 主語)
Subject + LV (連繫動詞) + Noun.

• The man seems kind. (kind = adjective which describes the subject 主語)
Subject + LV + Adjective.

INDIRECT OBJECT
The indirect object indicates to whom or for whom the action of the sentence is being done. The indirect object is usually a noun or pronoun.

• The man builds his family (間接受詞) a house (直接受詞).
The man builds them (間接受詞) a house (直接受詞).
The man builds a house (直接受詞) for his family (間接受詞).

Biking and swimming after school on Wednesday.
(這只是一句 很長的phrase片語/詞組,並非 complete sentence完整的句子)
由 3 個短詞組 所組成的長詞組。
因為欠缺了 subject(主語)和(動詞)。
Helena went biking and swimming after school on Wednesday.
S + V

To register for Putonghua class before the deadline, (這只是一句 phrase 片語/詞組)
Stephen hopes to register for Putonghua class before the deadline.

THE EIGHT PARTS OF SPEECH 英語的 8 大詞類

1. NOUN名詞
• A noun is the name of a person, place, thing, or idea(概念).
New Asia College (香港中文大學的)新亞書院…
house… happiness… friendship…marriage … man…

2. PRONOUN代名詞
• A pronoun is a word used in place of(取代、代替)a noun.
She… we… they… it

3. VERB 動詞
• A verb expresses action or being(狀態).
jump… is… write… become

The verb in a sentence expresses action or being(狀態).
There is a main verb and sometimes one or more helping verbs(auxiliary verb)(輔助動詞).

(“She can sing.” Sing is the main verb(主要動詞); can is the helping verb.)
A verb must agree with its subject in number (雙數或單數)(both are singular or both are plural).
Verbs also take different forms (帶有不同的形式)(spelling 唔同,請看動詞表。) to express tense 表示時態(進行該動作的時間).

4. ADJECTIVE 形容詞
• An adjective modifies(修飾)or describes(描述)a noun or pronoun.
pretty… old… blue… smart

5. ADVERB 副詞
• An adverb modifies or describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
gently… extremely… carefully… well

Adverbs often end in -ly.

6. PREPOSITION 介繫詞
• A preposition is a word placed before a noun or pronoun to form a phrase modifying (修飾)another word in the sentence.
by… with…. about… until
(by the tree, with our friends, about the book, until tomorrow)

The prepositional phrase (介繫詞片語)almost always functions(功能)as(作為)an adjective (形容詞)or as an adverb(副詞).

7. CONJUNCTION 連接詞
• A conjunction joins(連接)words, phrases, or clauses(從句、子句).
and… but… or… while… because

A conjunction also indicates(顯示)the relationship(關係)between the elements(句子的成分)joined.
Coordinating conjunctions: and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet.
Subordinating conjunctions: because, although, while, since, etc.
The following are examples of some of the most common subordinating conjunctions:
after, although, as, as if, because, before, even though, if,

in order that, rather than, since, so that, than, hat, though,

unless, until, when, whenever, where, wherever, whether, while

8. INTERJECTION 感嘆詞
• An interjection is a word used to express emotion(情緒).
Oh!… Wow!… Oops!

「Wow!」是一句英語口語,通常表示驚訝、愉快或痛苦的叫喊。

〝Oops! I thought that was mine and took it!〞
(糟糕!我以為那是我的就拿了。)

〝Oops! I made the same mistake again!〞
(完了!我又犯了同樣的錯誤!)

〝Oops! I didn’t know you were here, you scared me!〞
(啊啊啊 / 哎呀!我不知道你在這裡,你嚇了我一大跳!)

It is often followed by an exclamation mark 代表感嘆的標點符號(!).

The young girl brought me a very long letter from the teacher, and then she quickly disappeared. Oh my! (Nouns underlined)

The young girl brought me a very long letter from the teacher, and then she quickly disappeared. Oh my! (Pronouns underlined)

The young girl brought me a very long letter from the teacher, and then she quickly disappeared. Oh my! (Verbs underlined)

The young girl brought me a very long letter from the teacher, and then she quickly disappeared. Oh my! (Adjectives underlined)

The young girl brought me a very long letter from the teacher, and then she quickly disappeared. Oh my! (Adverbs underlined)

The young girl brought me a very long letter from the teacher, and then she quickly disappeared. Oh my! (Prepositions underlined)

The young girl brought me a very long letter from the teacher, and then she quickly disappeared. Oh my! (Conjunctions underlined)

The young girl brought me a very long letter from the teacher, and then she quickly disappeared. Oh my! (Interjections underlined)

Basic form基本式
可帶 “to” 或
不帶 “to”
(視乎情況) 進行式
Continuous
(-ing form) 過去式
(多用於
simple past tense) 過去分詞
past participle
多用於完成式perfect tenses,又可做形容詞。
(to) eat 食、吃 eating ate eaten
(to) play玩 playing played played
(to) swim游泳 swimming swam swum
(to) sing唱歌 singing sang sung
(to) smoke吸煙 smoking smoked smoked

Money has been raised to beautify the garden.
A lot of money has been raised to beautify the district.
Some money has been raised to beautify the area.
Little money has been raised to beautify the school.
No money has been raised to beautify the school garden.



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